Many people, thinking about the hairstyles of ancient Egypt, imagine the image of Queen Cleopatra: even parting in the middle along the crown, long straight bangs, tight braids, decorated with golden ribbons, leather bandage on the tips and, of course, open ears, about which Hollywood filmmakers why- then, always forget. Nowadays, Egyptian-style hairstyles have found their application not only on films with films about tombs, pyramids and Egyptian rulers, but also in modern hairstyles. For example, modern haircuts are very popular today, tomorrow - less, but still never go out of fashion.
It is inherently the same Egyptian hairstyle: almost every girl could have done the same long thick bangs, strict elegant contours. Even outlines of this hairstyle look best in dark color, as in the times of Ancient Egypt, where the main colors of hair were black, dark chestnut, blue. But the idea that the image of Cleopatra - this is the only representation of the ancient hairstyles of Egypt, is not correct. Indeed, as evidenced by the images on many frescoes in tombs, they were very diverse.
Curly wigs instead of hair
In the sands of Ancient Egypt, hairdressers who had been specially trained for this business had to do hairstyles to their masters. Moreover, as evidenced by the records on the papyrus or the walls of the tombs, as shown in the photo, one slave was trained only in one specific action. This allowed them to perform hairstyles very high quality. Even then, over 3000 years BC. Oe., they practiced and coloring and decorating with various decorative elements.
One of the main elements of the hairstyle of the ancient Egyptians was a wig. But it was rather used not so much by a decorative element, as by a sign that testified to the person’s origin, his position in society. Not only the presence of a wig, but also its size and shape spoke about social status. Thus, the biggest wigs were worn by Pharaoh and his confidants and family, while the landowners, warriors and others were simple Egyptians - small with a rounded shape.
They preferred to make them from different materials, depending on the social status of the person for whom the wig was created: hair, wool, silk, ropes, painted in dark colors. Often they wore 2 wigs at once, because the layer between them saved the head from the sun's rays. Slaves in ancient Egypt did not wear wigs or hair. And in order to somehow defend themselves from the scorching sun there, they smeared their heads with oils.
The hairstyles of men and women of Ancient Egypt were similar: both shaved their heads, the difference was only in the length and complexity of the hairstyle. They had precise strict lines, and their general form resembled a regular geometric shape: a trapezoid, an oval, a circle, and others. It was fashionable to wear a wig with a flattened dark area. Most often, wigs were loved to be made from strands that were wound on wooden sticks. Coiled hair was covered with wet dirt, which fell off when it dried.
Hairstyle as a social marker
The entire population of ancient Egypt was divided into several classes: priests, slave owners, artisans, peasants and slaves. On classical frescoes people of different classes were depicted in a different style. Representatives of the upper class, for example, are always beautiful, slim and tall. In this style depicted the pharaohs and their entourage. Ordinary people in the frescoes are much smaller and more squat.
The researchers found that most of the ancient Egyptians wore wigs. The shape of the wig and the material from which it was made indicated the social status of the person. Wigs were made of wool, silk, plant fibers. The price of the wig depended on the type of material. The most fashionable colors were considered black and dark brown. Most wigs had a trapezoidal shape. Wigs were not only a fashion accessory, but also served as sun protection. Sometimes people wore several wigs at the same time to create an air gap. Pharaohs and bureaucrats usually wore huge wigs, while farmers and warriors preferred small ones.
Pigtails, quads and a fashion for own hair
But as you know, over time, the world changes, as do the people in it, like fashion. The same fate befell the Egyptians, whose taste also gradually changed. Wigs, once the main ones in the Egyptian style, began to go into oblivion, and their own hair met more often. But nevertheless wigs were dressed for various celebrations, only they changed: instead of thick dense strands in the form of braids, they had large curls. Women in Egypt began to wear long shoulder-length hair, loved braiding them or making curls, cutting their straight bangs.
Egyptian hair had a feature not only in pigtails and various curlicues. They were soaked with different perfumes or aromatic oils.
In addition to the hairstyles could be hats, which the Egyptians were large and outstanding, you can see how big they were in the photo. Also hair, braided in braids, could be decorated with ribbon, colorful bright threads, interesting bandage. Pharaoh's family in childhood should have been worn on the temple bezel with an artificial pigtail. This addition to the hairstyle of children from the family of the ruler of Egypt was mandatory and symbolized childhood. All other children, regardless of origin, shaved their heads. Only if the parents of the child were not slaves, he was left a patch of hair on his temple. He was braided or tied up.
Fashion trends of ancient Egypt
Over time, wigs turned into ceremonial hats that were worn on the occasion of the festivities. Such wigs were curled in large curls, soaked in perfumes and aromatic oils. Refusing to wear everyday wigs, the Egyptians turned to tight braids and curls. For example, the strands were wound on wooden sticks of different diameters and then coated with special mud, it quickly dried and fell off, and the strands retained their shape. Residents of ancient Egypt increasingly grew their own hair, among the girls there was a fashion to cut straight characteristic "Egyptian" bangs.
In all epochs of ancient Egypt, slaves were shaved, they smeared their heads with oils and fats to protect themselves from the heat. The priests of Egypt also shaved their heads and facial hair, but unlike slaves they always wore huge, impressive wigs to highlight their significance.
During the reign of the famous Cleopatra, the fashion for wigs is back. The most relevant were drop wigs, which imitated the direct parting. Curled hair was decorated with ribbons, leaving the ears open. In this era, wigs were dyed in the craziest colors. On the heads of the Egyptian nobility one could see orange, red, yellow, blue and even green wigs.
Hairstyles in Egypt
To create hairstyles in ancient Egypt, they used both their own hair and artificial materials - getting wigs, respectively. Thanks to this, when looking at the head of the Egyptian one could immediately determine his social position. A simple hairstyle worn by poor citizens and young people. Whereas the members of the family of Pharaoh, as well as the priests and noble officials had to wear a wig.
A child of any sex from a rich Egyptian family was cut in a special way since childhood - all hair was completely shaved off, leaving a few curls in the area of the left temple. Usually the strand was braided into a braid, sometimes supplementing with overlays of leather strips and colored threads. And already, when a rich Egyptian became an adult, his own wig and even a whole collection of these products were waiting for him.
Nuances of hairstyles of ancient Egypt
The most ancient Egyptian hairstyles include small short trapezoidal wigs, which covered the ears and resembled today's “square”. It is possible that the Egyptians became the founders of this haircut. However, among their merits there is a much more important invention - perm. She didn’t look much like modern methods, but the principle was the same:
The main task assigned to the wig was the decoration of its owner. Additional - an indicator of the status of the Egyptian. Only the most wealthy and distinguished citizens, representatives of the priestly class possessed long and complex wigs. Pharaoh's hairstyle was also quite large and unique.
The most expensive types of wigs were made from real hair. Cheaper options could be made up of threads, ropes, plant fibers and wool. Traditionally all wigs were made dark. However, the last few centuries of the existence of the ancient Egyptian state marked by the expansion of the range of colors. And on the head of a wealthy citizen could see and orange, and blue, and yellow wig. The wig of a simple artisan or a farmer had a simpler composition - sheep wool or ropes. Women from poor families and generally managed their hair.
Egyptian wigs were made not only in the form of a trapezoid - the main thing in this subject was the preservation of a geometrically regular shape. The female version could be drop-shaped, spherical or three-part (when the hair is lying on its back and chest). Another popular variation is the flat top of the hairstyle and the rest divided into 2 parts with exactly trimmed hair tips.
A priest could wear a wig of enormous size, complemented by the same large-sized mask of a sacred animal. And in the era of the Middle Kingdom (about 4 thousand years ago) massive wigs in honor of the goddess Gator were in fashion. They were called "gatoricheskie" and consisted of structures that fell on the front of the chest, and behind divided into 2 spiral curled ends. Strands of hair were intercepted by gold (bronze for not very rich people) hoops and ribbons.
The hot climate of Egypt led to the fact that wearing a wig on top of his hair was impossible, and his head was shaved clean - and both men and women. And to protect against sunstrokes under the first wig, a second wig could be put on - an interlayer was formed between them, protecting both from the sun and heat.
Due to the distrust of the inhabitants of ancient Egypt to any changes, fashion did not exist here for several years or months, as now, but for centuries and even millennia. As a result, neither the hairstyles of the ancient Egyptian pharaohs, nor the wigs of the country's population were changed, but rather were modified and supplemented by new elements. Over time, women began to wear smooth hairstyles, without small braids that had gone out of fashion. But already in the XIV century BC A giant-sized wig appears, which is divided into three parts - Queen Nefertiti began to wear it first, and the rest of the noble Egyptian women began to wear it.
At the same time, products of the following form appeared:
The era of the New Kingdom brought another fashionable hairstyle - the wig was decorated with a small headdress, which is a cone-shaped tower, inside which there was an aromatic oil.
Through the tiny holes in the cone, the scent leaked out and surrounded the woman with a persistent and pleasant smell.
Despite the fact that the hair of the country of the pharaohs were diverse, the beard was not worn. Every male Egyptian smoothly shaved using a sickle-shaped device, stone or bronze. Nobody had a real beard - only Pharaoh should have been wearing an artificial one, and regardless of gender. So the only female Pharaoh in history, Hatshepsut, also had to wear a beard, which is a sign of the owner of all the Egyptian lands. And Cleopatra, who ruled much later, was considered only a queen and was spared from such wearing.
The beard for the pharaoh, resembling a goat, was curled completely or only at the very end. In this element could be a snake made of gold - the so-called "urey", also considered a sign of the power of Pharaoh.
Other features of the fashion of the time of Pharaoh
Hairstyles and wigs in ancient Egypt were not the only ways to decorate themselves and show individuality. People wore quite interesting and complex hats, used cosmetics and jewelry made from different metals. For a noble Egyptian woman to go out without makeup and jewelry was almost unacceptable.
The crown that Pharaoh wore was called “pszhent” and resembled a ring with a bottle in its shape. Its two parts symbolized the same number of Egyptian kingdoms. The crown had two colors too - white and red, it was put on over the cap or cap. In addition to the traditional headdress, the ruler of the country had a second option - an atef made of reeds. Also used in Egyptian history and the crown with images of two animals, symbolizing the same kingdom - the kite (Lower Egypt) and the cobra (Upper).
Among the Egyptians were popular hats such as the claft, which represents a three-pointed scarf - one of the ends was lying on his back, the rest on his chest. Women rarely covered their heads, preferring their hair or wigs. The only representative of the fair sex in ancient Egypt, which was prescribed to wear a headdress, was the queen. She put on a crown made of gold and decorated with stones in the form of a falcon spread its wings. Only Nefertiti wore another version of a headdress shaped like a cylinder.
It is known that the Egyptians preferred to wear a lot of jewelry, among which were bracelets, and rings, and tiaras. All this luxury served as an indicator of the status of the owner and his privileges. At the same time, for most people of that time, jewelry had a special value, protecting it from evil magic, physical fatigue, and even from grief. Therefore, hieroglyphs and images that had different meanings were put on it - the scarab (immortality) and the wings of Isis (protection) were the most popular.
The shape of the jewelry of Ancient Egypt also represented a magical symbols. Most often, they were made in the form of a scarab beetle, quickly running on the sand and symbolized at that time and immortal life and mobility.
As materials for decoration used:
Iron products were valued in the Bronze Age, were rare and expensive, exceeding even gold in price. Combs, hairpins and other decorations for the hairstyle of ancient Egypt were made from the same metal. Although they could be non metallic at all, ivory products, decorated with stones and colored drawings, were valued more than gold. Egyptians and silver jewelry valued more gold - the metal was considered to be associated with Isis, and therefore with magic. Therefore, mystical properties and power were attributed to silver products.
In ancient Egypt, jewelry was worn everywhere - at the ankle, shoulders, wrist and neck. Shoulder and wrist bracelets were decorated with the symbol of the Eye of Horus, which made them strong amulets. And necklaces could include as one of the elements of the same sacred beetle.
Makeup and perfumery
For a noble Egyptian woman it was important to decorate their eyebrows and eyelashes, for which the powder Kokhl consisting of pounded antimony and malachite was used (for drawing circles around the eyes). It is known about a strong passion for cosmetics of the last Egyptian queen Cleopatra, who even wrote a book about her and owned her perfume factory.
The peculiarity of everyday makeup resident of ancient Egypt were bright colors
When applying make-up it was important to give the eyes a visual lengthening. Such a style was not only fashionable, but also protected eyelids from sand and sunlight.
The perfume industry did not exist at that time, and had to take action independently. For this, people rubbed the body with ointments of incense, turpentine, and an unknown component so far. And to improve the smell in the room they used the prototype of modern aroma lamps - an odorous substance (resin, spice or special wood) was placed on the heat source and waited for it to spread through the air. In the era of the New Kingdom, perfumery began to be manufactured en masse and stored in special vessels.
Already after 3000 BC, the Egyptians dyed their hair with henna and actively decorated it with decorative elements. Hairstyles were quite complicated and for their creation used slaves-hairdressers, specially trained in this business.
The Egyptians were extremely conservative people and even despite the fact that the main part of the hairstyle was a wig, it did not differ in a variety of forms, especially in the example of men.
Female hairstyles, over time, began to differ a great variety, which in general is quite natural, but in general also repeated the traditional form of Egypt "trapezoid".
Wigs were worn by the entire free population of Egypt. In fact, it was not only and not so much a “decorative” element, but also a kind of “business card” of the owner, indicating his social position.
Pharaoh, for example, and his entourage wore the largest wigs. Warriors, farmers, artisans - small, round shape. They were made from hair or wool, silk or dark colored ropes, which were especially "fashionable" and those times, especially in the New Kingdom period.
Over time, hairstyle complicated. Now hair began to be braided into numerous pigtails, having them in tight rows, or doing a perm with the help of cold styling: hair strands were wound on wooden sticks and covered with mud, which fell off after drying, and the strands were curled in such a way by beautiful, light waves or steep curls.
Hair length now dropped to the shoulders. The length of the hair began to reach the shoulders. Bangs over the forehead were replaced by longitudinal or transverse partings.
In solemn occasions they wore long wigs curled with large parallel curls. Sometimes the wave was simply replaced by rows of tightly laid braids.
Hairstyles were soaked with aromatic oils, essences and sticky compositions. All men necessarily shaved his beard, as the beard (although artificial, attached to the chin) was one of the symbols of the power of Pharaoh, personified the possession of the earth.
She was made the same way as wigs, but the shape here was not so important. In addition, the beard was often decorated with a gilded snake - Urei, which was also considered a symbol of power.
Priests usually shaved their heads and faces, put on wigs or masks depicting sacred animals, and noble courtiers and landowners wore wigs or made short haircuts from their own hair.
Numerous slaves who inhabited Egypt of that time wore hairstyles familiar to them, but because of the hot climate, many for the purpose of hygiene completely shaved their hair.
Women's hairstyles at all times were much longer than men, and of course much more intricate, especially for queens and noble women. A characteristic feature of all hairstyles was the severity, clarity of lines, for this they received the name "geometric".
Notable women, like men, shaved their heads and put on wigs. The most typical hairstyles on wigs were two: all the hairs were parted longitudinally, fitting the face tightly on both sides, and evenly cutting at the ends. The top of the wig was flat.
The second hairstyle was shaped like a ball. Both were "geometric".
With the development of the Egyptian society, women's hairstyles were lengthened, a “three-part” wig appeared, three brides of which descended on the chest and back, as well as a huge wig made of large curled waves.
The shape of this wig was unusual, "drop-shaped." The hair in it was divided by a parting, the waves from two sides were intercepted by flat metal bands. At the same time, the ears remained open. The ends of the strands that fell on the chest curled into large snail-like curls. A strand of hair falling to the back, flat, consisted of straight hair or small braids.
Wigs were dyed in different colors - blue, orange, yellow.
Hairstyles were made from their own hair, freely spreading them on the back, the ends were decorated with tassels. Sometimes hair curled in small waves - such a curl was obtained after combing small, thin braids.
Children, boys and girls shaved their hair, leaving one or more strands on their left temple, which curled into a curl or woven into a flat braid.
The ends of the hair intercepted with a barrette or colored ribbon. Overhead braids made of silk colored threads, ribbons or strips of leather, animal hair were used.
The simplest of them were laces of leather and silk threads - the Egyptians wore them as frontal dressings. Also widely represented are hoops made of metal or matter, which are worn over the hairstyle both on wigs and on their own hair.
Pharaohs in solemn cases wore special hats made of precious metals. They hugged head, covering hair, but left ears open. The most ancient of them, pshent, is a crown, shaped like a bottle inserted into a ring.
Such a double red-and-white crown began to be worn by pharaohs after the unification of Lower and Upper Egypt into one centralized state. Usually pszhent was put on thin, linen or linen scarves or caps.
Other ceremonial headdresses were atef - reed crown, as well as a twin crown, decorated with images of a kite and a cobra. A variation of the ceremonial headgear was a diadem of gold or silver - a center.
All estates wore a handkerchief - a klaft, tightly clinging to the head and leaving the ears open, two ends falling on the chest, a third - on the back, sometimes this end was intercepted with tape or hoop.
A kind of klaft was a striped scarf - not so much. Headdresses were decorated with images of birds, animals and hieroglyphs that wore a decorative character.
Often used floral ornament. Petals and lotus leaves, filled with colored paste, decorated with headbands, tiaras, ribbons.
The symbol of the unlimited power and divine origin of the pharaoh was the image of a small snake, which was called urey, or ureus. It was made of gold, colored enamels, strengthened above the forehead or at the temple on a wig, headdress or on the beard of Pharaoh.
Sometimes crowns were decorated not with one, but with two serpent heads. Warriors wore helmets in the form of felted hats, clergymen - hats with heavy masks of animals fixed on them.
Women rarely wore hats, with the exception of queens. Pharaohs 'wives' paintings are often depicted in a headdress in the form of prostrate hawk wings made of gold, precious stones and enamels. There were hats and other forms, such as the one depicted on the head of Queen Nefertiti.
Ladies of the upper class wore wreaths, flowers, tiaras, ribbons, gold chains with temporal pendants made of glass, resin, precious stones.
Discovered in the tomb of Pharaoh XVIII of Tutankhamen’s dynasty, the golden diadem is encrusted with opal, cornelian, and a golden ball is placed in the center. The round disk and lotus flowers are located at the place of attachment of ribbons, inlaid with malachite, corals, and glass.
In the headgear of the XVIII dynasty lotus motif is very popular.
Bandages, hoops, not only of noble women, but also musicians, slaves are decorated with lotus flowers. The lower strata of the population wore cloth shawls, cane, leather, straw hats and caps.
In ancient Egypt, they were worn by all segments of the population. These were rings, earrings, bracelets. The Egyptians loved turquoise tones and therefore, the most skillful jewelry was made of lapis lazuli, which was highly valued.
A number of various ornaments were associated with the religious ideas of the Egyptians. The amulets were supposed to discourage evil spirits and save from the dangers. Usually they had the form of eyes, hearts, snake heads, scarab beetles.
Headdresses were decorated with images of birds, dragonflies, frogs, set in gold and silver, platinum. The abundance and relatively easy mining of gold made it one of the most common metals known to the Egyptians since ancient times.
Iron also served as a material for jewelers and cost much more than gold. Iron made hairpins and combs for hair. Many combs themselves were works of art, especially ivory: inlaid with colored enamels, precious stones, they ended with the depiction of figures of animals, birds - ostriches, giraffes, horses.
Cosmetics are widely used in ancient Egypt. In the pyramids, in the tombs of the Pharaohs were stored toilet boxes with a full set of bubbles, jars, plates, toilet spoons, pots.
All women whitened, flushed, used phosphorescent dyes. The passion for cosmetics was so great that even sculptural portraits, mummies of cats and sacred bulls were painted!
Women blackened their eyebrows and eyelashes with special cochol powder and malachite drew green circles around their eyes. For tinting the eyelids used fine-grained lead sulfide.
Notable ladies used cosmetics infused with herbs, many cosmetics were not only decorative, but also had healing properties.
For example, eye paint was used as a means of repelling insects. Malachite greens served as a cure for eye diseases. Egyptian queen Cleopatra even wrote a book on cosmetics "On face medicines".
Egyptian women were known means to care for the skin of the face, body, which were prepared according to special recipes. Noble ladies liked to use vegetable oils with the addition of water lily juice, lotus for grinding.
Ointments were used to nourish the skin, protecting it from the scorching rays of the sun. They consisted of olive, castor, sunflower, almond, sesame oils. Sheep and ox fat, amber was added. Aromatic turrets were attached to the wigs.
Cleopatra had a whole factory for the production of perfumes. Archaeologists found during excavations in the Dead Sea area the remains of buildings. This place was the property of the queen, it was presented to Cleopatra by the Roman general Anthony. Among the utensils were found boilers, pots for evaporation and boiling, hand millstones for grinding herbs and roots.
Toilet treatments were performed by slaves, each with their own specialty. The Egyptian medical writings that have come down to us in the so-called Ebers papyrus, published in Leipzig, Hearst's papyrus and others, besides information on anatomy, contain some recipes for the manufacture of cosmetics.
Egyptian recipes are mentioned in Hippocrates, they entered into the traditional European medicine. This is primarily recipes ointments, which were prepared in the temples.
For example, to prevent gray hair used the fat of black snakes, the blood of black bulls and the eggs of forty and raven.
Hairdressers claimed that ointments made on the fat of a lion have miraculous power, contribute to the density and growth of hair. Appreciated ointments, which consisted of fish oil, powder from the hooves of donkeys. These funds were exported and sold for big money.
source - hairstyle history (?)
Dreadlocks as a historical hairstyle rastamanov
To this day, dreddy can be found in the jungles of India - claim that it is in this way that the head of local hermit gardens looks, living in the forest waiting for enlightenment. The Indian roots of dreadlocks are drawn from Sadu - people who have achieved enlightenment, their own understanding of the world. They often recluse in the mountains, rarely gathering together. Hair does not cut, why they fall into mats - sometimes up to several meters long. However, it is impossible to call this hairstyle exclusively Indian or African, since it existed since the times of mammoths, if not earlier.
In the 1950s, the dredlocks shocked civilized citizens who dubbed them “dredloks” (horrible curls). The Rastamans caught the word, calling themselves "Dredlock", "Dred" or "Natty Dred" ("natti" - a distorted English "curly", contemptuous nickname of a black man, turned Rastafari inside out). However, in Rastafarianism there are many discrepancies and trends, and not all hold the opinion that the “lion’s mane” is obligatory for the rasta. For example, Rastafarians, who were baptized by the Ethiopian Orthodox Church in 1976, were told to shave as befits.
On the history of the rasta and the Rastafarian movement
A little bit about the origin of the dreads: There was such a person, his name was Marcus Garvey, he was a native of the warm and wonderful country of Jamaica, he was a Negro nationalist leader, whose General Association for the Improvement of Negro Position became the most famous organization of black power in the twenties. Although he himself was of Anglican worship, he pushed his followers to paint Jesus black and organize their own church. In order to emphasize that the new church is neither Catholic nor Protestant, it was called “Orthodox”. The attempt of official recognition as an Orthodox organization was not successful, and in the end, the “African Orthodox Bishop” was dedicated to the group “American Catholics”, which rejected the authority of the pope, but nevertheless remained similar in religion to the Roman Catholic Church. The Harveite church had thousands of members on three continents and was a symbol of the anti-colonial struggle in Kenya and Uganda. African Orthodox in these countries very soon broke with the New York church, passing into the jurisdiction of the Greek Patriarchate in Alexandria and becoming fully Orthodox. The same happened a little bit earlier in Ghana.
And a little about afrokosichkah. Hairstyles of Ancient Egypt: the fashion of the era of the pharaohs Egypt is not only the cradle of one of the most ancient and mysterious civilizations. It was in Egypt that much of this life was born, without which it is difficult to imagine our life. Take any item from those around you and you will find its distant prototype in the Nile Valley. It is not surprising that the art of self-care, the artful craft of man-made human beauty, appeared here, about 5 thousand years ago. Young humanity, having barely made its first sensible step, has already rushed to the most ancient mirror - the water surface. The logic of beauty, at first glance, defies interpretation and explanation — approximately as female logic. Man's desire to be more beautiful than he really is, is quite understandable. But where do those aesthetic ideals come from, in order to achieve which, people at all times were ready to do much, if not all?
From where the love of geometric forms and strict proportions came from the ancient Egyptians, we do not know. But it is impossible not to notice the similarities of the great pyramids and the headgear of the pharaohs buried in them. The hairstyles of the ancient Egyptians are distinguished by the paradoxical combination of the complexity of performance, sophisticated technology, the splendor of decorations and the geometric simplicity of the final forms, verified by strict proportions. Headgear nobility to the trapeze (a typical example - the Sphinx), commoners (warriors, farmers, artisans) - to the ball. By the way, the criterion of “prestige” was decisive for the ancient Egyptians.Traditionally, dark and straight hair was considered to be a sign of nobility, pure blood, therefore wigs repeated the outlines on the straight parting of the laid hair. Yes, Nefertiti's gorgeous hair, which we can judge by the statuettes that have come down to us, is a wig. In ancient Egypt, men, as a rule, shaved their heads, women cut short. This was, among other things, of practical importance - so the Egyptians escaped from the heat and insects. Egyptians used to do hairstyles from their hair very rarely, their distribution dates back to a later period of this civilization. Wigs of this ancient civilization are carefully braided and laid in tight rows tight many pigtails. Cropped strands were strictly on the same level. For example, just below the earlobes - this is the hairstyle preferred by the legendary queen Cleopatra. Thus, Egypt is the birthplace of the famous "square." Above the bangs, a gold hoop decorated the hair, and on solemn occasions - inlaid with precious stones. Wigs, as a rule, were made of hair, animal hair, silk thread, rope, plant fibers. They are richly soaked with aromatic oils, perfumes or essences. In addition to the aesthetic functions, they also had practical value - wigs protected the head from the scorching rays of the sun. Some hairstyles, which appeared when the Egyptians remembered the existence of their own hair, would seem very extravagant even today. For example, Egyptian children, boys and girls shaved their heads, leaving one or more strands on their left temple, which they curled or braided into a flat braid. The ends of the hair intercepted with a barrette or colored ribbon. But the Egyptians could not forget about their favorite wigs too quickly - and they decorated their hair with false braids of silk colored threads, ribbons or strips of leather, animal hair. Many millennia later, people finally realized the Egyptian dream of long, thick hair - and invented hair extensions.
The recognized queen of feminine beauty of ancient Egypt is considered to be the queen Nefertiti - a slender and graceful woman. Thin facial features, full lips and huge almond-shaped eyes, the shape of which was emphasized by special contours, the contrast of heavy hairstyles with a graceful elongated figure evoked an idea of an exotic plant on a flexible, waved stem.
In general, women of Ancient Egypt will give a hundred points ahead to modern beauties in ways of caring for themselves: in order to widen the pupils and give shine to the eyes, the women of Egypt dripped juice from the plant “sleepy stupefy” in them, which then became known as belladonna. The most beautiful color of the eyes was considered green, so the eyes were encircled with green paint from carbon dioxide (later it was replaced with black), they were extended to the temples, they painted on thick long eyebrows. Green paint (from pounded malachite) painted nails and feet. Egyptian women invented special whitewash, which gave a dark yellow skin a dark skin. He symbolized the earth, warmed by the sun. Tartaric juice of iris was used as blush, skin irritation with this juice caused redness that lasts a long time.
In the photo: Nefertiti's head, Akhenaton's wife, is made of sandstone.
The beauty of ancient Greece and Rome were embodied in the most famous sculptures. The goddess of love and beauty (Venus - in Rome and Aphrodite - in Greece) is still considered the benchmark - it was from her that the famous "formula" 90-60-90 came.
In ancient Greek mythology, Aphrodite was described as follows: "Aphrodite calmly walks among wild animals, proud of her radiant beauty. Her companions Ora and Harita, the goddess of beauty, gracefully serve her. They dress the goddess in luxurious clothes, brush her golden hair, and crown her sparkling hair tiara.
Aphrodite, the daughter of Uranus, was born near the island of Kifer, from the snow-white foam of the sea waves. A gentle breeze brought her to the island of Cyprus. They were surrounded by the young Ora, the goddess of love emerging from the waves of the sea. They clothed her in gold cloth and crowned with a wreath of fragrant flowers. Wherever Aphrodite did not go, flowers flourished there. The whole air was full of fragrance. Eros and Hymeroth led the wondrous goddess to Olympus. Her gods greeted her loudly. Since then, the golden Aphrodite, the ever-young, most beautiful of the goddesses, has always lived among the gods of Olympus. "
In the photo: Venus Tauride, Roman copy according to the Greek original. III century BC. er
The Fayum portraits, found for the first time in the village of Er-Rubayat near Fayum (Middle Egypt) in the 1880s They are images of the most beautiful inhabitants of Roman Egypt, I-IV centuries AD - Egyptians, Greeks, Nubians, Jews, Syrians, Romans. Women portrayed in portraits are depicted in robes in the Roman fashion of that time in white and red colors, sometimes in green, blue or white. Hairstyles consistently followed the fashion of the capital, asked by the imperial family.
In the photo: Fayum portrait of the I-III century AD
In the 15th century, the S-shaped curved silhouette of a figure came into fashion in the Gothic period. To create it, small quilted pads were put on the stomach - bare feet. Clothes narrow, chilling movements, elongated, dragging on the floor.
Agnes Sorel, Dame de Beaute, the favorite of France Charles VII, was considered one of the most beautiful women of this era. Agnesse is credited with introducing such innovations as wearing diamonds by uncrowned women, inventing a long train, wearing very loose dresses that reveal one breast. Her behavior and open admission of communication with the king often provoked indignation of the common people and some of the courtiers, but she was forgiven for many things thanks to the protection of the king and her perfect beauty, about which even the Pope said: "She had the most beautiful face that you can see light. "
In the photo: Agnes Sorel (Jean Fouquet, 1450)
In the era of the early Renaissance, beauties shaved their eyebrows and bangs, making a high forehead. In XVII, it was believed that if a woman wears the 44th size of clothes, then she is somehow sick and cannot raise healthy offspring. So, one of the chroniclers of the XVI century gives his formula of female beauty, a multiple of three: "Three white - skin, teeth, hands. Three black - eyes, eyebrows, eyelashes. Three red - lips, cheeks, nails. Three long - body, hair and hands. Three wide - chest, forehead, distance between eyebrows. Three narrow - mouth, shoulder, foot. Three thin - fingers, hair, lips. Three rounded - hands, torso, hips. Three small - chest, nose and legs."
In the photo: Vechelio Titian "Danae" (circa 1554)
In the 17th century, another ideal came to replace the lush woman: the woman had to be tall, with well-developed shoulders, chest, hips, a very thin waist (with the help of a corset, she was pulled up to 40 centimeters) and lush hair (women's hairstyles reached 50-60 cm tall and supported by special wires), costumes distinguished colorful, a huge amount of jewelry. Cosmetics were used beyond measure, and black flies, which the ladies stuck on the face, neck, chest and other intimate places, were especially popular. Each fly had its own symbolic meaning. The fly above the lip signified coquetry, on the forehead - grandeur, in the corner of the eye - passion.
The Queen of England, Elizabeth I Tudor, the "virgin queen", was considered the most unattainable beauty of her time. She carefully watched her toilets, used cosmetics in the epoch of fashion — in her many formal portraits it was noticeable that the ruler used powder and a bright contrast lipstick that emphasized the whiteness of her skin.
In the photo: Elizabeth I Tudor (years of life 1533-1603)
As many contemporaries of Empress Elizabeth Petrovna noted, the tsarina was one of the most beautiful women of Russia of the XVIII century. French envoy to Russia Kampredon wrote about Elizabeth as a possible bride of the future King Louis XV: “Her beauty will serve as an adornment for the Versailles meetings. France will improve Elizabeth’s inborn charms. Everything has a charming imprint on her. We can say that she is a beautiful waist beauty , complexion, eyes and hand elegance. "
Sofia-Augusta-Frederick, Princess of Anhaltzersbst, who later became Catherine II, first saw Elizabeth in a male suit (in short knee-length pants), when she was 34 years old, in 1744, at the age that was respectable for a woman of the XVIII century: " It was truly impossible then to see for the first time and not to be amazed at her beauty and majestic posture.This was a tall woman, although very full, but she didn’t lose or experience the slightest embarrassment in all her movements, her head was also very beautiful. I would like to see everything third, not taking his eyes off her, and only regret that they can be torn away from it, because they do not put any objects that have caught up with her. "
In the photo: the Empress Elizaveta Petrovna (Georg Christoph Groot, 1744)
The period of Neoclassicism in the middle of the XVIII century marked the return to the old Greek ideals. The beauty of the XVIII century - a woman full and large. Fertility and fullness are considered an ideal of beauty, and the artists of the 18th century in portraits purposely round female forms. Baroque appreciated pomp, and the burden of overall fijm and heavy brocade could only be placed on a strong body. The attitude to appetite corresponded to the accepted ideals of beauty: the women of the 18th century ate a lot, not at all embarrassed by this.
The 18th century was the century of the heyday of women's hairstyles and wigs, the court hairdresser of the French queen Marie Antoinette, the famous Leonard Bolyar, was the creator of hairstyles that make up a single piece with a headdress. They even reflected international events. pm was invented hairstyle "a la frigate", dedicated to the victory of the French frigate "La Belle Pul" over the British in 1778.
In the photo: Marie Antoinette (Louise-Elizabeth Vige-Lebrun, end of the 18th century)
Hairdressing as an art
Talking about the hairstyle fashion in ancient Egypt, I would like to note that this state was slave-owning. After studying the numerous scrolls and wall paintings, historians and archaeologists concluded that almost all the work on the livelihood of the inhabitants of the Nile Valley was done by slaves. Each of them clearly knew their responsibilities.
It is noteworthy that slaves also monitored the beauty of their masters. At the same time, they were quite skillful, because long before the appearance of various tools for creating complex hairstyles in Egypt, methods of curling and dyeing hair, creating wigs from different materials and different types of styling were mastered. All this, scientists were able to learn from written sources and murals of the tombs. In addition, a careful study of mummies gave simply sensational results - their hair was in excellent condition, which means they were carefully looked after. This, of course, was also done by slaves.
The barbers of ancient Egypt were both men and women. They were trained purposefully, and one person could perform only one operation qualitatively. At times, more than ten slaves were used to wash my hair and make a haircut. One was washing his hair, the other was combing the strands, the third was rubbing cosmetics, the fourth was dyeing curls and so on. This allowed the slaves to become real masters of their craft.
Over time, such skillful hairdressers made a real hunt. They cost a lot of money, and a slave presented as a gift with similar skills became a real gem of the collection, which she often boasted in her circle of nobility.
Fashion hairstyle: dynamics and trends
Scientists divide the history of ancient Egypt into three fairly long periods:
- Ancient kingdom
- Middle kingdom
- New kingdom.
Each time interval has a number of characteristic features, but this can be seen from fashion trends in the hairstyles of ancient Egypt. Despite the fact that the inhabitants of the Nile Valley in some way were known as conservatives, they were not alien to experiments with their appearance, which was reflected in the hair.
The most numerous of them were the Egyptians in the period of the New Kingdom. At this time, rapidly changing colors, shapes and length of hair. Prior to this, for many years, the inhabitants of ancient Egypt adhered to certain canons regulating the types of hairstyles for the nobility. At the same time, each social stratum was prescribed to wear their own hairstyle with small possible variations.
Characteristic features of Egyptian hairstyles
After a long study of the records of the entire period of Egyptian history, scientists were able to identify the distinctive characteristics by which you can learn the hairstyle of a resident of the Nile Valley. We will list them briefly, and in the subsequent sections of the article we will consider in more detail:
- black or dark brown hair color
- geometric shapes characteristic of men and women
- thick bangs
- hair coating with aromatic oils
- weaving (often they took bizarre forms),
- wide use of wigs,
- addiction to perm.
In one way or another, these signs can be traced in all periods of the state’s history. Moreover, this applied only to noble families, because ordinary people could not afford slaves, and it was quite difficult to care for their hair on their own.
The main types and forms of hairstyles
Having mentioned that the Egyptians often used wigs, we did not specify that it was on them that the ancient hairdressers honed their art. The fact is that all know preferred to wear them not only in solemn occasions, but also in the house or on a walk. They were considered the most natural haircut of a nobleman and were performed in accordance with the requirements of their time.
In the period of the Ancient and Middle Kingdom, the hairstyles of men and women were very similar. They are often called "geometric" because of the rigor and clarity of lines. This hairstyle could resemble an oval, trapezoid, circle, and so on. The most popular forms were “trapezoid”, “drop” and “ball”.
The first was achieved due to the small length and flattened head. Usually, the hair is cut just below the chin and styled so that it expands to the bottom. At the same time, the back of the head was smeared with aromatic oils and sticky compositions so that the hair did not fluff from the heat.
The spherical shape was achieved due to a large number of laying means. At the same time, the length of the hair should not have been longer than on a trapezoid hairstyle.
Teardrop shape looked better on long hair. She demanded direct parting and open ears. Historians claim that of all the hairstyles of ancient Egypt, options with open ears were the most popular. However, they are often forgotten by directors and consultants of feature films, creating images of their characters from this era.
For the Egyptians, it was typical to adhere to certain forms for many centuries. They sought to preserve the heritage of their ancestors and tried in every way to be like them.
Hairstyles of slaves
The life of slaves was always clearly regulated, but the rules never concerned their appearance. The Egyptians got people from different provinces, countries and even from other continents, but because they brought with them their traditions and fashion. Know not too interested, why some slaves wore long hair, while others chose to cut it. They allowed servants to choose for themselves exactly how to look.
As the few records found by archaeologists testify, initially all people who fell into slavery, by all means held on to the traditions brought from their homeland. However, soon the hard work and the hot humid climate forced them to completely change their appearance. Most often they shaved their heads. If a slave was valued as a master, he was allowed to nourish the scalp with various oils.Otherwise, hair care was limited to frequent shaving, which made it possible to reduce sweating and avoid becoming a breeding ground for various insects with which the Nile Valley was rich.
We have already written that in Egypt there was not much difference between the hairstyles of men and women. This trend is beginning to be seen in children's fashion. The fact is that each child, regardless of gender, was completely shaved off the hair on his head. This concerned even the children of slaves, but it was still possible to distinguish one from the other in terms of hairstyle.
The child of commoners and nobles was left a long strand of hair at the left temple. She served as a symbol of childhood and determined the status of his parents as free people. For convenience, this strand was braided into a thin pigtail or a tail was made from it.
The hairstyle of the young Pharaoh, who had not reached puberty, looked a little different. He also shaved his hair, but did not leave a pigtail. Immediately after shaving, the boy was set on a headband of leather or hair, on which a pigtail was attached. It was made by the master of the same material that was used to weave the rim. Such a hat, replacing the hair, symbolized the high position of the child and distinguished him from a large number of other children.
Wigs in ancient Egypt: why are they needed?
Constructions made from different materials were extremely fashionable among the inhabitants of the Nile Valley. They represent the most striking characteristic of the fashion of those times on the hair. Absolutely all famous people wore them:
- aristocrats (men and women),
- the pharaohs.
Each member of the class listed completely shaved off their hair and put a wig on their head. Historians believe that such a strange for modern man fashion was triggered by the climate in which the Egyptians lived. It was extremely difficult for them to live with long hair in an area with constant high air temperature and humidity. Do not exclude from the list of usual problems for Egyptians dust storms and an abundance of insects, which also adversely affected hairstyles. Therefore, it was necessary for the beauty to use all sorts of wigs.
Their form has always corresponded to fashion. The most popular were those that allowed to create the effect of absolutely flattened parietal zone. It was considered the height of hairdressing in ancient Egypt.
Materials for making wigs
Since wigs were worn by absolutely all segments of the population, the materials for their production were completely different. The commoners could make their hair out of colored ribbons or ropes. Richer people often used animal fur and silk. In this case, the wig was very light and let the air through.
Know, approached Pharaoh and the ruler of Egypt himself wore wigs made of natural hair. For their manufacture attracted the most skilled craftsmen. They first carried out a complex staining procedure and only then proceeded to create a masterpiece. Usually, hair was wound on thin wooden sticks and smeared with clay. After drying, elastic cords were obtained, from which the remains of clay were easily shaken off. Then the prepared strands gathered in the desired shape.
Care for a natural hair wig was simple. Slaves periodically combed it out and smeared it with aromatic oils. It is noteworthy that many representatives of the nobility wore two wigs at a time. This was done not in order to show its importance, but in order to create an air cushion and to protect against overheating in the scorching sun.
By the size and appearance of the wig on the head, it was easy to determine the status of its owner. For example, the priests wore very voluminous buildings, and in solemn occasions they put them on animal masks. It looked a bit quaint, but completely consistent with their status.
Medium-sized landowners wore neat and short wigs. Know and pharaohs could afford absolutely any shape and size, depending on the occasion and mood.
Female hairstyles of ancient Egypt were distinguished by simplicity. They were characterized by the same geometrical forms already described earlier and dark hair color. Shades usually ranged from bluish black to dark brown.
Ladies carefully shaved their heads, and when they left their chambers they always put on a wig. Initially, its length was rather short - up to the chin or shoulders. At the same time, regardless of the shape, the ends of the hair were cut off smoothly, which further emphasized the geometric shape of the hairstyle.
Over time, fashion trends have changed a bit. Bright hair colors have become popular. Noble ladies wore wigs of yellow, green and orange shades. Their length has also changed. In the era of the New Kingdom, women began to give preference to longer hair, from which intricate hairstyles were constructed. In fashion began to enter and natural hair below the shoulders.
Often they were braided into small braids and laid very tightly to each other. On holidays, hairdressers curled large curls and placed them strictly parallel. Without a doubt, hair was smeared, it gave them a special shine and protected from the scorching rays of the sun. Around the same time period, women fell in love with a hairstyle that divided hair into three rows. Two strands descended on the chest and twisted intricately, and one streamed down the back and opened the graceful ears of Egyptian women.
The hairstyles of the men of ancient Egypt were rather uncomplicated. Commoners could shave their heads or make the shortest possible haircut. But noble men have always completely shaved off the hair on the head and face. This was considered a constant attribute of the time.
Men's wigs have not undergone major changes in the history of Egypt. Notable Egyptians could afford two types of hair. One resembled our today's kare. The hair was divided into parting and clipped, then it was smoothed and oiled, leaving it to dry completely in one position. Another option suggested the same shape, but the strands were twisted and tightly packed together.
Hairstyles for Pharaohs
The hairstyles of the pharaohs of ancient Egypt differed in very intricate forms. Most often the wigs were incredibly voluminous. The design itself, with a multitude of intertwined strands, was decorated with gold ribbons, headbands and precious stones. Each such wig was a work of art. The collection of the pharaoh could number dozens of different wigs for all occasions.
Constant addition to the hairstyle of the ruler of Egypt served as a beard. It was made of artificial hair and attached to the chin with a thin cord. Often she braided her hair. Pharaoh could not appear in public without a wig and an obligatory beard.